Carroll Park, Long Beach, California

Carroll Park is a neighborhood in the city of Long Beach, CA.

Curving streets lined with Craftsman Bungalows recall the horse-and-buggy era for this subdivision laid out in 1907. Landscaped islands are a unique neighborhood amenity.

Carroll Park was the first planned housing tract in Long Beach. Homes were originally constructed here between 1898 and 1923. At least a dozen houses and three barns built during his brief tenure here still stand. In all, about seventy-five houses in the Park predate 1940. Several old barns survive from an earlier time.

Carroll Park was built at the turn of the century by John Carroll, and was the first planned housing tract in Long Beach, California. The Park was designated a Historic Landmark District in 1982, just shortly after the City recognized the need to preserve Long Beach’s treasured communities.*

The Park’s unique circular layout gives it a seclusion that is unlike any other historic district in Long Beach. (See map, ]

Carroll Park is a residential neighborhood of single family and duplex homes, some modest, some quite impressive, but all well maintained. There are no businesses within the Park. The Park boasts a wide variety of historic architectural styles, old-growth trees, and narrow streets that wind around the four grassy islands that anchor the Park’s inner circle.

The streets were built for horse and buggy, so traffic is naturally deterred. Historians indicate that the Park was planned in this circular fashion with its complex maze of streets to deter the farm and ranch wagons on their way to town. The horses and wagons are gone, but the Park continues to enjoy the absence of through traffic.

Carroll Park attracts walkers from many of the neighboring Bluff Heights communities. Two churches sit adjacent to the Park. Throughout the year, residents enjoy the mild microclimate of Bluff Park.

A Carroll Park neighborhood association has existed for years, and residents join together for an annual potluck picnic or on the rare occasion that something threatens to impinge on the historic significance or peacefulness of the Park. Unlike other historic districts, home tours are not routinely offered: There doesn’t appear to have been one since July 1982, when the Park was initially designated a historic district.

Carroll Park is bordered by 3rd Street to the south, Wisconsin Avenue to the east, 4th Street to the north, and Junipero Avenue to the west.

To the south and east of Carroll Park is Bluff Heights and to the north is Rose Park South, and to the south and west is Alamitos Beach.

2016 Australian Formula 4 Championship

The 2016 CAMS Australian Formula 4 Championship is the second Australian Formula 4 Championship, a motor racing competition for open-wheel racing cars complying with Formula 4 regulations, which were created by the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA) for entry-level open-wheel championships. Teams and drivers are competing in eighteen races at six venues, starting on 1 April and ending on 23 October.

The following Australian-registered teams and drivers contested the championship.

The calendar expanded for the 2016 season, with the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport choosing to focus on permanent racing venues, rather than temporary street circuits, to better aid the development of young drivers. The season started earlier in the year than in 2015, with the first round at Symmons Plains Raceway in April, while the final round will be held at the Highlands Motorsport Park in New Zealand. The Townsville Street Circuit and Homebush Street Circuit have been removed from the schedule. On February 9, it was announced that Highlands Motorsport Park would be removed from the schedule for cost reasons.

All rounds will support the International V8 Supercars Championship, with the exception of the third round that will be featured within the Shannons Nationals.

Points are awarded to the top 10 classified finishers in each race.

Bold – Pole
Italics – Fastest Lap


Риу-дуз-Индиус (порт. Rio dos Índios) — муниципалитет в Бразилии, входит в штат Риу-Гранди-ду-Сул. Составная часть мезорегиона Северо-запад штата Риу-Гранди-ду-Сул. Входит в экономико-статистический микрорегион Фредерику-Вестфален. Население составляет 4007 человек на 2006 год. Занимает площадь 236,966 км². Плотность населения – 16,9 чел./км².

Город основан 20 марта 1992 года.

 Алпестри  | Аметиста-ду-Сул  | Кайсара  | Константина  | Кристал-ду-Сул  | Дойс-Ирманс-дас-Мисойнс  | Энженью-Велью  | Эрвал-Секу  | Фредерику-Вестфален  | Грамаду-дус-Лорейрус  | Ираи  | Либерату-Салзану  | Ноноай  | Нову-Тирадентис  | Нову-Шингу  | Палмитинью  | Пиньейринью-ду-Вали  | Планалту  | Риу-дуз-Индиус  | Родею-Бониту  | Рондинья  | Себери  | Такуарусу-ду-Сул  | Триндади-ду-Сул  | Трес-Палмейрас  | Висенти-Дутра  | Виста-Алегри

Cape St. George Island

Cape St. George Island (also known as Little St. George Island) is an uninhabited barrier island situated on Florida’s North Gulf Coast, south-southeast of St. Vincent Island, west of St. George Island and 8–10 miles south-southwest of the town of Apalachicola in Franklin County, Florida. It was formerly part of St. George Island, but was separated from the main island in 1954, when the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed the ship channel known as Bob Sikes Cut.

Various Indian cultures occupied St. George Island for hundreds of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. Pottery fragments dating from A.D. 750 to 1450 occasionally are found on older portions of the island. Throughout the 1830s Apalachicola became Florida’s largest port due to the booming cotton industry. With such a large volume of ships entering and leaving Apalachicola Bay a lighthouse was necessary. In 1831 the Florida Territorial Legislature was awarded an $11,800 Congressional appropriation to build a new lighthouse. The first lighthouse was constructed at the west end of the island in 1833 near West Pass, which was the main entrance to the bay. Due to the shape of St. George Island a second lighthouse was constructed at the southernmost tip to better guide ships. The second lighthouse only lasted three years due to poor construction and powerful storms. A replacement lighthouse was constructed in 1852 and stood over 500 yards inland from the Gulf. However, by 1990 beach erosion left the lighthouse vulnerable. The lighthouse finally succumbed to the weather when it toppled into the water July 10, 2005. A new replica of the Cape St. George lighthouse was finished December 1, 2006 on St. George Island.

Pine trees on Cape St. George Island were „catfaced“ used to make turpentine from 1910 through 1916. During World War II the island served as a practice gunnery range for B-24 bombers stationed in nearby Apalachicola. From 1950 through 1956 the pine trees were again harvested for turpentine. The old buildings of the turpentine camp are still in existence at the Government Dock.

Cape St. George Island was purchased in 1977 under the Environmentally Endangered Lands program to protect it from development and to contribute to the protection of Apalachicola Bay. Cape St. George State Reserve, now referred to as Little St. George Island, is currently owned by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s Florida Coastal Office and managed by the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve (ANERR). The Island’s remoteness and wilderness qualities provide an opportunity to explore and enjoy a remnant of Florida’s original natural landscape.

The island has extensive savannahs, old relic sand dune ridges and sand dunes and salt marshes. Ponds and marshes are found in the low swales between the old dune ridges. A small coastal hammock and black willow swamp can also be found.

There are a variety of recreational opportunities on Little St. George Island including hiking, beach activities, kayaking, wildlife viewing, primitive camping and fishing. Although the Island is only accessible by boat, there are many local outfitters that provide day trips to the Island and equipment rental. Primary access to the Island is from Sike’s Cut and the Marshall and Government docks. Informational kiosks that describe recreation opportunities are prominently located at West Pass, Marshall House, and Sike’s Cut.

There are a total of seven „Leave No Trace“ camping sites: two sites at West Pass, two sites at the Government Dock, two sites at Sike’s Cut, and one sheltered camping platform at the historic lighthouse location. Paddlers along the have priority at these sites. Sites are free and reservation is not required with but recommended. There are two primitive hiking trails located near the center of the Island. Island Ridge Trail extends out west from the Short Road and connects to the Bay for a nice viewpoint. A moderate 3 mile loop can be made by taking the trail out and the Old Bay Road back. Another primitive trail meanders along a dune ridge and takes visitors from the Government Dock camp to the Gulf Beach (1 mile). On the far east end, the Sike’s Cut Trail is a 0.9 mile trail that can connect with the Gulf Beach to make a 1.6 mile loop. All roads and beaches can be hiked on Little St. George Island. Motorized vehicles are not allowed. Pets are welcome but must be leashed at all times due to the Island’s beach and dune areas being critical shorebird and sea turtle nesting habitat.

Cape St. George Island is covered by several plant communities. Scrub and sea oats can be found on the newer dunes, Slash pine flatwoods are found in the low swales and savannahs. Scattered cabbage palmetto are found on overwash portions at the east and west ends of the island.

There are few mammals on the island due to the distance from the mainland; raccoons, coyotes, and squirrels are the most common. However, birds are very diverse and abundant during migration in the spring and fall. Notable birds of prey include the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey. Threatened loggerhead sea turtles and endangered green and leatherback (rare) sea turtles nest on the beach throughout the summer, as do oystercatchers and endangered snowy plovers. Cottonmouths and rattlesnakes are common in the ponds and marshes. There are even a few gopher tortoises inhabiting the higher dunes of the island.


Choo Hoey

Choo Hoey (* 20. Oktober 1934 in Palembang) ist ein singapurischer Dirigent chinesischer Herkunft.

Choo wurde als Kind chinesischer Einwanderer auf Sumatra geboren. 1946 kam er mit seiner Familie nach Singapur. Nach dem Studium an der Royal Academy of Music in London debütierte er 1958 mit dem Orchestre National de Belgique. Er dirigierte eine Anzahl namhafter europäischer Orchester, darunter das London Symphony Orchestra, das London Philharmonic Orchestra, das Orchestre de la Société du Conservatoire, das Tonhalle Orchester Zürich, das Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra und das Orchestre de la Suisse Romande. In Griechenland leitete er das Athens State Orchestra (Κρατική Ορχήστρα Αθηνών), das Orchester der Griechischen Nationaloper (Εθνική Λυρική Σκηνή) und das Orchester des griechischen Rundfunks und Fernsehens.

1978 wurde er als Chefdirigent und musikalischer Direktor des Singapore Symphony Orchestra (SSO) verpflichtet, das er bis 1996 leitete und zu internationalem Erfolg führte. Daneben wirkte er weiter als Gastdirigent in Europa und arbeitete mit dem Hongkong Philharmonic Orchestra und dem Chinese Philharmonic Orchestra in Peking. Sein Repertoire umfasst die klassische und romantische europäische Musikliteratur ebenso wie Werke asiatischer Komponisten. Zu den Solisten, die unter seiner Leitung auftraten, zählen u.a. Li Chuan Yun, Lynnette Seah, Lang Lang und Kun Woo Paik.

Amoklauf von Aramoana

Der Amoklauf von Aramoana in Neuseeland ereignete sich vom 13. auf den 14. November 1990 in der kleinen Küstensiedlung Aramoana, an der Otago Harbour. Der ortsansässige David Malcolm Gray (* 20. November 1956; † 14. November 1990) tötete mit einem Sturmgewehr 13 Menschen, ehe er am nächsten Tag im Gefecht mit einer Spezialeinheit starb. Es war die bis heute opferreichste Schießerei in der Geschichte Neuseelands und führte zu einer Änderung der Waffengesetze in diesem Land.

Der Amoklauf begann am Dienstag, dem 13. November 1990 gegen 20.00 Uhr in der Muri Street 27, als Gray mit seinem 38-jährigen Nachbarn Garry Holden in Streit geriet. Es ging darum, dass Holdens Kinder über sein Grundstück liefen und dies nicht zum ersten Mal geschah. Im Laufe der Auseinandersetzung betrat Holden das Grundstück von Gray und bedrohte ihn.

Dieser ging zurück in sein Haus, holte ein 5,56 mm Norinco AK Sturmgewehr (chinesischer, halbautomatischer Nachbau einer AK-74) mit Zielfernrohr und tötete Holden mit mehreren Schüssen. Danach begab er sich ins Haus von Holden, erschoss dessen 11-jährige Tochter Jasmine und deren ebenfalls 11-jährige Freundin Rewa Bryson. Holdens zweite Tochter, die 9-jährige Chiquita, wurde angeschossen und verletzt, schaffte es aber, eine befreundete Nachbarin zu alarmieren, die die Rettungskräfte benachrichtigte.

Inzwischen hatte Gray das Haus der Holdens angezündet und trat ins Freie, wo er die 26-jährige Vanessa Percy erschoss, die wegen des Lärms auf die Straße gerannt war, um Nachschau zu halten.

Danach tötete er ihre beiden Söhne, den 6-jährigen Leo Wilson und den 5-jährigen Dion Percy, sowie ihren 42-jährigen Ehemann Ross Percy. Die 3-jährige Stacey Percy wurde durch einen Bauchschuss schwer verletzt und wurde zur Vollwaise. Unmittelbar danach erschoss der Täter den 41-jährigen Aleki Tali auf offener Straße und drang in ein Haus ein, wo er den anwesenden 69-jährigen Tim Jamieson und den 70-jährigen Victor Crimp erschoss.

Kurz darauf wurden der 45-jährige James Dickson und der 61-jährige Chris Cole niedergeschossen und getötet. Die nun eintreffende Polizei konnte Gray nicht sofort ausfindig machen und vermutete ihn in seinem Haus, das daraufhin umstellt wurde. Der 41-jährige Sergeant Stewart Graeme Guthrie durchkämmte das hohe Gras auf der Rückseite des Hauses und konnte dabei den Täter entdecken. Dieser gab vor, sich zu ergeben, flüchtete aber plötzlich ins hohe Gras. Beim Versuch, den Flüchtigen zu verfolgen, wurde Sergeant Guthrie aus dem Hinterhalt erschossen.

Da die Nacht einbrach und niemand wusste, wo sich Gray nun aufhielt, beschränkte sich die örtliche Polizei und die inzwischen eingetroffene Polizei-Spezialeinheit Armed Offenders Squad (AOS) auf die Abriegelung der Ortschaft und wartete auf den nächsten Tag.

In den frühen Morgenstunden gelang es einem Polizeihubschrauber, den Täter zu lokalisieren, musste aber abdrehen, als dieser das Feuer eröffnete. Nun begann die Spezialeinheit, in den Ort vorzurücken und konnte Gray in einem kleinen Haus umstellen. Nach einem zweieinhalbminütigen Schusswechsel wurde er schließlich durch Tränengas ins Freie gezwungen, wobei er das Feuer auf die Beamten eröffnete und einer verletzt wurde. Diese erwiderten den Beschuss und trafen Gray fünfmal in Kopf und Brust. Trotzdem konnte er erst nach einem Handgemenge überwältigt werden und starb kurz darauf an seinen Verletzungen.

Der Amoklauf in Aramoana ist bis heute die Schießerei in der Geschichte Neuseelands mit den meisten Todesopfern. 14 Menschen starben, drei wurden verletzt. Aufgrund dieses Ereignisses wurden 1992 die ausgestellten Waffenscheine sämtlicher Bürger Neuseelands wieder eingezogen. Jeder Waffenbesitzer muss jetzt ein Foto im Waffenschein führen, der dann nur noch für zehn Jahre, anstatt wie bisher lebenslang, gültig ist. Ebenso wurden die Kosten für den Waffenschein erhöht und die Prüfung erschwert. Außerdem sind aufklappbare Visiere, Zielfernrohre, Bajonettaufsätze, freistehende Pistolengriffe und Mündungsfeuerunterdrücker für halbautomatische Gewehre verboten worden. Für Gewehre im .22 lfB-Kaliber dürfen keine Magazine mehr verwendet werden, die mehr als 15 Patronen fassen. Für alle größeren Kaliber darf kein Magazin mehr verwendet werden, das mehr als 7 Patronen fasst.

Es war auch das einzige Mal in der Geschichte Neuseelands, dass die militärische Spezialeinheit New Zealand Special Air Service (NZ SAS), für einen inländischen Zwischenfall in Alarmbereitschaft versetzt wurde. Drei Tage nach dem Amoklauf wurde das Haus des Täters von Unbekannten niedergebrannt. Sergeant Stewart Graeme Guthrie wurde am 18. Februar 1992 posthum die höchste zivile Auszeichnung des Commonwealth of Nations, das Georgs-Kreuz, verliehen. Regisseur Robert Sarkies hat den Amoklauf in Out of the Blue – 22 Stunden Angst verfilmt.

Shaped charge

A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive’s energy. Various types are used to cut and form metal, initiate nuclear weapons, penetrate armor, and „complete“ wells in the oil and gas industry.

A typical modern shaped charge, with a metal liner on the charge cavity, can penetrate armor steel to a depth of seven or more times the diameter of the charge (charge diameters, CD), though greater depths of 10 CD and above have been achieved. Contrary to a widespread misconception (possibly resulting from the acronym HEAT) the shaped charge does not depend in any way on heating or melting for its effectiveness; that is, the jet from a shaped charge does not melt its way through armor, as its effect is purely kinetic in nature.

The Munroe or Neumann effect is the focusing of blast energy by a hollow or void cut on a surface of an explosive.

The earliest mention of hollow charges occurred in 1792. Franz Xaver von Baader (1765–1841) was a German mining engineer at that time; in a mining journal, he advocated a conical space at the forward end of a blasting charge to increase the explosive’s effect and thereby save powder. The idea was adopted, for a time, in Norway and in the mines of the Harz mountains of Germany, although the only available explosive at the time was gunpowder, which is not a high explosive and hence incapable of producing the shock wave that the shaped-charge effect requires.

The first true hollow charge effect was achieved in 1883, by Max von Foerster (1845–1905), chief of the nitrocellulose factory of Wolff & Co. in Walsrode, Germany.

By 1886, Gustav Bloem of Düsseldorf, Germany had obtained for hemispherical cavity metal detonators to concentrate the effect of the explosion in an axial direction.

The Munroe effect is named after Charles E. Munroe, who discovered it in 1888. As a civilian chemist working at the U.S. Naval Torpedo Station at Newport, Rhode Island, he noticed that when a block of explosive guncotton with the manufacturer’s name stamped into it was detonated next to a metal plate, the lettering was cut into the plate. Conversely, if letters were raised in relief above the surface of the explosive, then the letters on the plate would also be raised above its surface. In 1894, Munroe constructed the first crude shaped charge:

Among the experiments made … was one upon a safe twenty-nine inches cube, with walls four inches and three quarters thick, made up of plates of iron and steel … [W]hen a hollow charge of dynamite nine pounds and a half in weight and untamped was detonated on it, a hole three inches in diameter was blown clear through the wall … The hollow cartridge was made by tying the sticks of dynamite around a tin can, the open mouth of the latter being placed downward.

Although Munroe’s discovery of the shaped charge was widely publicized in 1900 in Popular Science Monthly, the importance of the tin can „liner“ of the hollow charge remained unrecognized for another 44 years. Part of that 1900 article was reprinted in the February 1945 issue of Popular Science, describing how shaped-charge warheads worked. It was this article that at last revealed to the general public how the fabled Bazooka actually worked against armored vehicles during WWII.

In 1910, Egon Neumann of Germany discovered that a block of TNT, which would normally dent a steel plate, cut a hole through it if the explosive had a conical indentation.

The military usefulness of Munroe’s and Neumann’s work was unappreciated for a long time. Between the world wars, academics in several countries – Myron Yakovlevich Sukharevskii (Мирон Яковлевич Сухаревский) in the Soviet Union, William H. Payment and Donald Whitley Woodhead in Britain, and Robert Williams Wood in the U.S. – recognized that projectiles could form during explosions. However, it was not until 1932 that Franz Rudolf Thomanek, a student of physics at Vienna’s Technische Hochschule, conceived an anti-tank round that was based on the hollow charge effect. When the Austrian government showed no interest in pursuing the idea, Thomanek moved to Berlin’s Technische Hochschule, where he continued his studies under the ballistics expert Carl Julius Cranz. There in 1935, he and Hellmuth von Huttern developed a prototype anti-tank round. Although the weapon’s performance proved disappointing, Thomanek continued his developmental work, collaborating with Hubert Schardin at the Waffeninstitut der Luftwaffe (Air Force Weapons Institute) in Braunschweig. By 1937, Shardin believed that hollow-charge effects were due to the interactions of shock waves. It was during the testing of this idea that, on February 4, 1938, Thomanek conceived the shaped-charge explosive (or Hohlladungs-Auskleidungseffekt (hollow-charge liner effect)). (It was Gustav Adolf Thomer who in 1938 first visualized, by flash radiography, the metallic jet produced by a shaped-charge explosion.) Meanwhile, Henry Hans Mohaupt, a chemical engineer in Switzerland, had independently developed a shaped-charge munition in 1935, which was demonstrated to the Swiss, French, British, and U.S. militaries.

During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka). The development of shaped charges revolutionized anti-tank warfare. Tanks faced a serious vulnerability from a weapon that could be carried by an infantryman or aircraft.

One of the earliest uses of shaped charges was by German glider-borne troops against the Belgian Fort Eben-Emael. These demolition charges – developed by Dr. Wuelfken of the German Ordnance Office – were unlined explosive charges and didn’t produce a metal jet like the modern HEAT warheads. Due to the lack of metal liner they shook the turrets but they did not destroy them, and other airborne troops were forced to climb on the turrets and smash the gun barrels.

The common term in military terminology for shaped charge warheads is high explosive anti-tank (HEAT). HEAT warheads are frequently used in anti-tank guided missiles, unguided rockets, gun-fired projectiles (both spun and unspun), rifle grenades, land mines, bomblets, torpedoes, and various other weapons.

In non-military applications shaped charges are used in explosive demolition of buildings and structures, in particular for cutting through metal piles, columns and beams and for boring holes. In steelmaking, small shaped charges are often used to pierce taps that have become plugged with slag. They are also used in quarrying, breaking up ice, breaking log jams, felling trees, and drilling post holes.

Shaped charges are used most extensively in the petroleum and natural gas industries, in particular in the completion of oil and gas wells, in which they are detonated to perforate the metal casing of the well at intervals to admit the influx of oil and gas.

A typical device consists of a solid cylinder of explosive with a metal-lined conical hollow in one end and a central detonator, array of detonators, or detonation wave guide at the other end. Explosive energy is released directly away from (normal to) the surface of an explosive, so shaping the explosive will concentrate the explosive energy in the void. If the hollow is properly shaped (usually conically), the enormous pressure generated by the detonation of the explosive drives the liner in the hollow cavity inward to collapse upon its central axis. The resulting collision forms and projects a high-velocity jet of metal particles forward along the axis. Most of the jet material originates from the innermost part of the liner, a layer of about 10% to 20% of the thickness. The rest of the liner forms a slower-moving slug of material, which, because of its appearance, is sometimes called a „carrot“.

Because of the variation along the liner in its collapse velocity, the jet’s velocity also varies along its length, decreasing from the front. This variation in jet velocity stretches it and eventually leads to its break-up into particles. Over time, the particles tend to fall out of alignment, which reduces the depth of penetration at long standoffs.

Also, at the apex of the cone, which forms the very front of the jet, the liner does not have time to be fully accelerated before it forms its part of the jet. This results in its small part of jet being projected at a lower velocity than jet formed later behind it. As a result, the initial parts of the jet coalesce to form a pronounced wider tip portion.

Most of the jet travels at hypersonic speed. The tip moves at 7 to 14 km/s, the jet tail at a lower velocity (1 to 3 km/s), and the slug at a still lower velocity (less than 1 km/s). The exact velocities depend on the charge’s configuration and confinement, explosive type, materials used, and the explosive-initiation mode. At typical velocities, the penetration process generates such enormous pressures that it may be considered hydrodynamic; to a good approximation, the jet and armor may be treated as inviscid, incompressible fluids (see, for example,), with their material strengths ignored.

Jet temperatures vary depending on type of shaped charge, cone construction, type of explosive filler. A Comp-B loaded shaped charge with a rounded or pointed cone apex with a copper liner had an average temperature of 428 degrees Celsius with a standard deviation of 67 degrees Celsius. Octol-loaded charges have an average jet temperature of 537 degrees Celsius with a standard deviation of 40 degrees Celsius. A tin-lead liner with Comp-B fill average is 569 degrees Celsius with a standard deviation of 34 degrees Celsius. the tin-lead liner also had a slower jet tip velocity of 6.3 km/s.

The location of the charge relative to its target is critical for optimum penetration for two reasons. If the charge is detonated too close there is not enough time for the jet to fully develop. But the jet disintegrates and disperses after a relatively short distance, usually well under two meters. At such standoffs, it breaks into particles which tend to tumble and drift off the axis of penetration, so that the successive particles tend to widen rather than deepen the hole. At very long standoffs, velocity is lost to air drag, further degrading penetration.

The key to the effectiveness of the hollow charge is its diameter. As the penetration continues through the target, the width of the hole decreases leading to a characteristic „fist to finger“ action, where the size of the eventual „finger“ is based on the size of the original „fist“. In general, shaped charges can penetrate a steel plate as thick as 150% to 700% of their diameter, depending on the charge quality. The figure is for basic steel plate, not for the composite armor, reactive armor, or other types of modern armor.

The most common shape of the liner is conical, with an internal apex angle of 40 to 90 degrees. Different apex angles yield different distributions of jet mass and velocity. Small apex angles can result in jet bifurcation, or even in the failure of the jet to form at all; this is attributed to the collapse velocity being above a certain threshold, normally slightly higher than the liner material’s bulk sound speed. Other widely used shapes include hemispheres, tulips, trumpets, ellipses, and bi-conics; the various shapes yield jets with different velocity and mass distributions.

Liners have been made from many materials, including various metals and glass. The deepest penetrations are achieved with a dense, ductile metal, and a very common choice has been copper. For some modern anti-armor weapons, molybdenum and pseudo-alloys of tungsten filler and copper binder (9:1, thus density is ≈18 Mg/m3) have been adopted. Nearly every common metallic element has been tried, including aluminum, tungsten, tantalum, depleted uranium, lead, tin, cadmium, cobalt, magnesium, titanium, zinc, zirconium, molybdenum, beryllium, nickel, silver, and even gold and platinum. The selection of the material depends on the target to be penetrated; for example, aluminum has been found advantageous for concrete targets.

In early antitank weapons, copper was used as a liner material. Later, in the 1970s, it was found tantalum is superior to copper, due to its much higher density and very high ductility at high strain rates. Other high-density metals and alloys tend to have drawbacks in terms of price, toxicity, radioactivity, or lack of ductility.

For the deepest penetrations, pure metals yield the best results, because they display the greatest ductility, which delays the breakup of the jet into particles as it stretches. In charges for oil well completion, however, it is essential that a solid slug or „carrot“ not be formed, since it would plug the hole just penetrated and interfere with the influx of oil. In the petroleum industry, therefore, liners are generally fabricated by powder metallurgy, often of pseudo-alloys which, if unsintered, yield jets that are composed mainly of dispersed fine metal particles.

Unsintered cold pressed liners, however, are not waterproof and tend to be brittle, which makes them easy to damage during handling. Bimetallic liners, usually zinc-lined copper, can be used; during jet formation the zinc layer vaporizes and a slug is not formed; the disadvantage is an increased cost and dependency of jet formation on the quality of bonding the two layers. Low-melting-point (below 500 °C) solder/braze-like alloys (e.g., Sn50Pb50, Zn97.6Pb1.6, or pure metals like lead, zinc or cadmium) can be used; these melt before reaching the well casing, and the molten metal does not obstruct the hole. Other alloys, binary eutectics (e.g. Pb88.8Sb11.1, Sn61.9Pd38.1, or Ag71.9Cu28.1), form a metal-matrix composite material with ductile matrix with brittle dendrites; such materials reduce slug formation but are difficult to shape.

A metal-matrix composite with discrete inclusions of low-melting material is another option; the inclusions either melt before the jet reaches the well casing, weakening the material, or serve as crack nucleation sites, and the slug breaks up on impact. The dispersion of the second phase can be achieved also with castable alloys (e.g., copper) with a low-melting-point metal insoluble in copper, such as bismuth, 1–5% lithium, or up to 50% (usually 15–30%) lead; the size of inclusions can be adjusted by thermal treatment. Non-homogeneous distribution of the inclusions can also be achieved. Other additives can modify the alloy properties; tin (4–8%), nickel (up to 30% and often together with tin), up to 8% aluminium, phosphorus (forming brittle phosphides) or 1–5% silicon form brittle inclusions serving as crack initiation sites. Up to 30% zinc can be added to lower the material cost and to form additional brittle phases.

Oxide glass liners produce jets of low density, therefore yielding less penetration depth. Double-layer liners, with one layer of a less dense but pyrophoric metal (e.g. aluminum or magnesium), can be used to enhance incendiary effects following the armor-piercing action; explosive welding can be used for making those, as then the metal-metal interface is homogeneous, does not contain significant amount of intermetallics, and does not have adverse effects to the formation of the jet.

The penetration depth is proportional to the maximum length of the jet, which is a product of the jet tip velocity and time to particulation. The jet tip velocity depends on bulk sound velocity in the liner material, the time to particulation is dependent on the ductility of the material. The maximum achievable jet velocity is roughly 2.34 times the sound velocity in the material. The speed can reach 10 km/s, peaking some 40 microseconds after detonation; the cone tip is subjected to acceleration of about 25 million g. The jet tail reaches about 2–5 km/s. The pressure between the jet tip and the target can reach one terapascal. The immense pressure makes the metal flow like a liquid, though x-ray diffraction has shown the metal stays solid; one of the theories explaining this behavior proposes molten core and solid sheath of the jet. The best materials are face-centered cubic metals, as they are the most ductile, but even graphite and zero-ductility ceramic cones show significant penetration.

For optimal penetration, a high explosive with a high detonation velocity and pressure is normally chosen. The most common explosive used in high performance anti-armor warheads is HMX (octogen), although never in its pure form, as it would be too sensitive. It is normally compounded with a few percent of some type of plastic binder, such as in the polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14, or with another less-sensitive explosive, such as TNT, with which it forms Octol. Other common high-performance explosives are RDX-based compositions, again either as PBXs or mixtures with TNT (to form Composition B and the Cyclotols) or wax (Cyclonites). Some explosives incorporate powdered aluminum to increase their blast and detonation temperature, but this addition generally results in decreased performance of the shaped charge. There has been research into using the very high-performance but sensitive explosive CL-20 in shaped-charge warheads, but, at present, due to its sensitivity, this has been in the form of the PBX composite LX-19 (CL-20 and Estane binder).

A waveshaper is a body (typically a disc or cylindrical block) of an inert material (typically solid or foamed plastic, but sometimes metal, perhaps hollow) inserted within the explosive for the purpose of changing the path of the detonation wave. The effect is to modify the collapse of the cone and resulting jet formation, with the intent of increasing penetration performance. Waveshapers are often used to save space; a shorter charge with a waveshaper can achieve the same performance as a longer charge without a waveshaper.

Another useful design feature is sub-calibration, the use of a liner having a smaller diameter (caliber) than the explosive charge. In an ordinary charge, the explosive near the base of the cone is so thin that it is unable to accelerate the adjacent liner to sufficient velocity to form an effective jet. In a sub-calibrated charge, this part of the device is effectively cut off, resulting in a shorter charge with the same performance.

During World War II, the precision of the charge’s construction and its detonation mode were both inferior to modern warheads. This lower precision caused the jet to curve and to break up at an earlier time and hence at a shorter distance. The resulting dispersion decreased the penetration depth for a given cone diameter and also shortened the optimum standoff distance. Since the charges were less effective at larger standoffs, side and turret skirts (known as Schürzen) fitted to some German tanks to protect against ordinary anti-tank rifles were fortuitously found to give the jet room to disperse and hence reduce also HEAT penetration.

The use of add-on spaced armor skirts on armored vehicles may have the opposite effect and actually increase the penetration of some shaped charge warheads.[citation needed] Due to constraints in the length of the projectile/missile, the built-in stand-off on many warheads is less than the optimum distance. In such cases, the skirting effectively increases the distance between the armor and the target, and the warhead detonates closer to its optimum standoff. Skirting should not be confused with cage armor which is used to damage the fusing system of RPG-7 projectiles. The armor works by deforming the inner and outer ogives and shorting the firing circuit between the rocket’s piezoelectric nose probe and rear fuse assembly. Cage armor can also cause the projectile to pitch up or down on impact, lengthening the penetration path for the shaped charge’s penetration stream. If the nose probe strikes between one of the cage armor slats, the warhead will function as normal.

There are several different forms of shaped charge.

A linear shaped charge (LSC) has a lining with V-shaped profile and varying length. The lining is surrounded with explosive, the explosive then encased within a suitable material that serves to protect the explosive and to confine (tamp) it on detonation. „At detonation, the focusing of the explosive high pressure wave as it becomes incident to the side wall causes the metal liner of the LSC to collapse–creating the cutting force.“ The detonation projects into the lining, to form a continuous, knife-like (planar) jet. The jet cuts any material in its path, to a depth depending on the size and materials used in the charge. For the cutting of complex geometries, there are also flexible versions of the linear shaped charge, these with a lead or high-density foam sheathing and a ductile/flexible lining material, which also is often lead. LSCs are commonly used in the cutting of rolled steel joists (RSJ) and other structural targets, such as in the controlled demolition of buildings. LSCs are also used to separate the stages of multistage rockets.

The explosively formed penetrator (EFP) is also known as the self-forging fragment (SFF), explosively formed projectile (EFP), self-forging projectile (SEFOP), plate charge, and Misznay-Schardin (MS) charge. An EFP uses the action of the explosive’s detonation wave (and to a lesser extent the propulsive effect of its detonation products) to project and deform a plate or dish of ductile metal (such as copper, iron, or tantalum) into a compact high-velocity projectile, commonly called the slug. This slug is projected toward the target at about two kilometers per second. The chief advantage of the EFP over a conventional (e.g., conical) shaped charge is its effectiveness at very great standoffs, equal to hundreds of times the charge’s diameter (perhaps a hundred meters for a practical device).

The EFP is relatively unaffected by first-generation reactive armor and can travel up to perhaps 1000 charge diameters (CD)s before its velocity becomes ineffective at penetrating armor due to aerodynamic drag, or successfully hitting the target becomes a problem. The impact of a ball or slug EFP normally causes a large-diameter but relatively shallow hole, of, at most, a couple of CDs. If the EFP perforates the armor, spalling and extensive behind armor effects (BAE, also called behind armor damage, BAD) will occur. The BAE is mainly caused by the high-temperature and high-velocity armor and slug fragments being injected into the interior space and the blast overpressure caused by this debris. More modern EFP warhead versions, through the use of advanced initiation modes, can also produce long-rods (stretched slugs), multi-slugs and finned rod/slug projectiles. The long-rods are able to penetrate a much greater depth of armor, at some loss to BAE, multi-slugs are better at defeating light or area targets and the finned projectiles are much more accurate.

The use of this warhead type is mainly restricted to lightly armored areas of main battle tanks (MBT) such as the top, belly and rear armored areas. It is well suited for the attack of other less heavily protected armored fighting vehicles (AFV) and in the breaching of material targets (buildings, bunkers, bridge supports, etc.). The newer rod projectiles may be effective against the more heavily armored areas of MBTs. Weapons using the EFP principle have already been used in combat; the „smart“ submunitions in the CBU-97 cluster bomb used by the US Air Force and Navy in the 2003 Iraq war employed this principle, and the US Army is reportedly experimenting with precision-guided artillery shells under Project SADARM (Seek And Destroy ARMor). There are also various other projectile (BONUS, DM 642) and rocket submunitions (Motiv-3M, DM 642) and mines (MIFF, TMRP-6) that use EFP principle. Examples of EFP warheads are US patents 5038683 and US6606951.

Some modern anti-tank rockets (RPG-27, RPG-29) and missiles (TOW 2B, ERYX, HOT, MILAN) use a tandem warhead shaped charge, consisting of two separate shaped charges, one in front of the other, typically with some distance between them. TOW-2A was the first to use tandem warheads in the mid-1980s, an aspect of the weapon which the US Army had to reveal under news media and Congressional pressure resulting from the concern that NATO antitank missiles were ineffective against Soviet tanks that were fitted with the new ERA boxes. The Army revealed that a 40 mm precursor shaped charge warhead was fitted on the tip of the TOW-2B collapsible probe. Usually, the front charge is somewhat smaller than the rear one, as it is intended primarily to disrupt ERA boxes or tiles. Examples of tandem warheads are US patents 7363862 and US 5561261. The US Hellfire antiarmor missile is one of the few that have accomplished the complex engineering feat of having two shaped charges of the same diameter stacked in one warhead. Recently, a Russian arms firm revealed a 125mm tank cannon round with two same diameter shaped charges one behind the other, but with the back one offset so its penetration stream will not interfere with the front shaped charge’s penetration stream. The reasoning behind both the Hellfire and the Russian 125 mm munitions having tandem same diameter warheads is not to increase penetration, but to increase the beyond-armor effect.

In 1964 a Russian scientist proposed that a shaped charge originally developed for piercing thick steel armor be adapted to the task of accelerating shock waves. The resulting device, looking a little like a wind tunnel, is called a Voitenko compressor. The Voitenko compressor initially separates a test gas from a shaped charge with a malleable steel plate. When the shaped charge detonates, most of its energy is focused on the steel plate, driving it forward and pushing the test gas ahead of it. Ames translated this idea into a self-destroying shock tube. A 66-pound shaped charge accelerated the gas in a 3-cm glass-walled tube 2 meters in length. The velocity of the resulting shock wave was 220,000 feet per second (67 km/s). The apparatus exposed to the detonation was completely destroyed, but not before useful data was extracted. In a typical Voitenko compressor, a shaped charge accelerates hydrogen gas which in turn accelerates a thin disk up to about 40 km/s. A slight modification to the Voitenko compressor concept is a super-compressed detonation, a device that uses a compressible liquid or solid fuel in the steel compression chamber instead of a traditional gas mixture. A further extension of this technology is the explosive diamond anvil cell, utilizing multiple opposed shaped charge jets projected at a single steel encapsulated fuel, such as hydrogen. The fuels used in these devices, along with the secondary combustion reactions and long blast impulse, produce similar conditions to those encountered in fuel-air and thermobaric explosives.

The proposed Project Orion nuclear propulsion system would have required the development of „nuclear shaped charges“ for reaction acceleration of spacecraft. Shaped charge effects driven by nuclear explosions have been discussed speculatively, but are not known to have been produced in fact. For example, the early nuclear weapons designer Ted Taylor was quoted as saying, in the context of shaped charges, „A one-kiloton fission device, shaped properly, could make a hole ten feet in diameter a thousand feet into solid rock.“ Also, a nuclear driven explosively formed penetrator was apparently proposed for terminal ballistic missile defense in the 1960s.

Mayumi Ozaki

Mayumi Ozaki
Mayumi Saita

Mayumi Ozaki (尾崎 魔弓 Ozaki Mayumi?) (born October 28, 1968) is a Japanese female professional wrestler.

Ozaki debuted in a tag team match in August, 1986. In her career, she held the WWWA tag titles with Dynamite Kansai from April 11, 1993 to December 6, 1993 (both winning from and losing to Manami Toyota and Toshiyo Yamada of All Japan Women’s Pro-Wrestling, selected for „Wrestling Observer Newsletter’s Match of the Year for 1993“. They rematched in April 1993 and won at the Dreamslam II (and with it the titles); the first time a woman’s match won the award. Their final match was at St. Battle Final in December. (AJW). She also held the UWA Junior and JWP Junior titles between 1988 and 1991, and teamed with Cutie Suzuki and Hikari Fukuoka to win the JWP Tag Titles a number of times between 1992 and 1995. Most recently, she held the AAAW Tag Team Championship with Aja Kong, beating GAEA’s Sugar Sato and Chikayo Nagashima on August 23, 1998 in Tokyo.

In 1995 Ozaki competed at the 1995 WCW World War 3 on Pay Per View event where she teamed with Cutie Suzuki against Bull Nakano and Akira Hokuto where they lost. They also compete against the same team the very next night on WCW Monday Nitro which they also lost.

Until recently, Ozaki usually wrestled in JWP Joshi Puroresu, but was also the leader of her own heel stable called the Oz Academy, which freelanced in other women’s promotions in Japan, such as AJW and GAEA. In 1998 Ozaki became a true free agent, and began to promote her own shows using her Oz Academy wrestlers, looking for a niche in the fragmented women’s puroresu scene. Ozaki made her mark mostly in tag team matches as she competed in four bouts that were among the greatest ever in women’s tag team wrestling, having earned a 5-star rating each by the Wrestling Observer Newsletter.

In December 2011, Ozaki took part in American promotion Chikara’s JoshiMania weekend, teaming with Mio Shirai in a losing effort against the team of Cherry and Ayako Hamada on night one on December 2. The following day, Ozaki defeated Shirai in a singles match. On the third and final night of the tour, Ozaki defeated Kaori Yoneyama in another singles match.

Marcus Perperna (consul 92 BC)

Marcus Perperna (c. 147 BC – 49 BC) was the son of a previous consul, Marcus Perperna.

Marcus Perperna became consul in 92 BC with Gaius Claudius Pulcher, and censor in 86 BC with Lucius Marcius Philippus. The censorship of Perperna is mentioned by Cicero, and Cornelius Nepos speaks of him as censorius.

Although he lived through troubled times, he did not play a prominent role in them. It was probably the same Marcus Perperna who was judex in the case of Gaius Aculeo, and also in that of Quintus Roscius, for whom Cicero pleaded. In 54 BC, Marcus Perperna is mentioned as one of the consulars who bore testimony on behalf of Marcus Aemilius Scaurus at his trial. He lived past all these times reaching the age of ninety-eight when he finally died in 49 BC. He outlived all the senators who belonged to that body in his consulship, and at the time of his death there were only seven persons surviving whom he had enrolled in the senate during his censorship.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). „article name needed„. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 

Syzygium sandwicense

Syzygium sandwicense (synoniem: Eugenia sandwicensis, Hawaïaans: hā; ʻōhiʻa hā) is een plant uit de mirtefamilie (Myrtaceae). Het is een tot 25 m hoge boom, die endemisch is op Hawaï en onder andere op Maui voorkomt. De soort komt voor in vochtige wouden en moerassen op bergruggen en hellingen tussen de 230 en 1220 m op de meeste grote eilanden. De boom heeft een zwarte schors en donkergroene bladeren. De bloemen zijn wit.

De vruchten zijn rijp 8,5 mm in diameter, rood van kleur en eetbaar. Het hout wordt gebruikt als brandstof, voor de huizenbouw en voor het vervaardigen van kano’s. De schors wordt gebruikt voor het maken van een zwarte kleurstof.

… · S. aqueum (Djamboe aer) · S. aromaticum (Kruidnagelboom) · S. cumini (Jambolan) · S. jambos (Djamboe aer mawar) · S. malaccense (Djamboe bol) · S. samarangense (Djamboe semarang) · S. sandwicense (Ohia ha) · …